Solar cell manufacturing & characterization
Fraunhofer will provide silicon bottom solar cells, and infrastructure for solar cell processing, including a range of vacuum deposition technologies, wet-chemical perovskite processing, metallisation and interconnection technology. Baseline processes are available that allow for high efficiencies. Furthermore, characterization equipment will be available for electrical and optical analysis of perovskite and perovskite-silicon tandem cells and precursors, as well as micro- and nano-analytics for root cause analysis (see description infrastructure).
Solar Cell Manufacturing
Solar Cell Manufacturing
Spatially resolved luminescence imaging, lock-in thermography and light beam induced current maps are used for identifying spatial inhomogeneities. For example, voltage dependent power dissipation in a perovskite solar cell measured by dark lock-in thermography revealing areas of increased recombination / areas of decreased parallel resistance. The combination of LBIC, photoluminescence and thermography is used for a fully integrated solar cell characterisation, allowing for the quantification of non-homogenous losses of perovskite solar cells, as depicted in fig. 1
Fig. 1 Example of spatially resolved assessment of cell parameters short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficicency of a (blade coated) perovskite solar cell. Inhomogeneous losses can be quantified in order to give advice for further device optimisation. ( Mundt, L. E., Kwapil, W., Yakoob, M. A., Herterich, J. P., Kohlstädt, M., Würfel, U., ... & Glunz, S. W. (2019). Quantitative Local Loss Analysis of Blade-Coated Perovskite Solar Cells. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 9(2), 452-459.
Only combining the different methodologies ranging from global measurements to nano-scale root cause analysis allows for a holistic understanding and access at different locations is therefore offered as one infrastructure.
Services are currently offered either by short and long term R&D contracts, as well as by receiving guest scientist. Currently > 60 (>50 (Halle)) external guests/year (international students, PhD and scientific exchange) are using the different facilities
Access can be granted on the basis of evaluated proposals which describe the envisaged experiments of a user. Typical times of using this infrastructure is between 1 week (measurement on existing samples) and 4 weeks (processing and characterization) depending on the type of experiments. An expert from Fraunhofer will offer guidance for these measurements including safety and detailed technical training and will accompany the experiments.
Services offered include the guided access to the above described characterisation techniques. Together with a Fraunhofer ISE/CSP - expert experiments can be performed, data can be evaluated, and conclusions can be drawn.
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